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Crowdfunding approach is an alternative method, completely different to the common typical business process, used to raise capital through small collective efforts (amounts of money) of a large number of people, friends, family members, customers and individual investors, and finance a project. In particular, it allows to know about a business even before it is launched, and is based on a network of people. Large investments have to be planned using multimedia information systems (text, audio, images, video, animations, …) that should persuade investors (no banks or other institutions involved) without providing guarantees of the business plan.
Nowadays, the crowdfunding for real estate sector is only applied to the U.S. market. In Europe, crowdfunding for real estate projects is not allowed yet, but there are various platforms that are already using the concept in different ways (e.g. banks are involved in this business and the amount of the investment is limited). Italy is an example of this approach, and even if it has been the first country to introduce a legal framework regarding equity crowdfunding, the market is still waiting for some changes in order to be as efficient as in the US.
The Crowdfunding scheme until now has been used to finance a wide range of projects in different fields, such as art, scientific research, medical, travel, social, civic projects, and only recently has been applied to renovation and the energy efficiency sector.
Crowdfunding can be classified into four different models, according to the revenue model as explained in the following figure:
- Donation Based Crowdfunding
- Rewards Crowdfunding
- Equity Crowdfunding
- Lending-based crowdfunding
The renovation of Torrelago district was implemented in the framework of the FP7 funded CITyFiED project (http://www.cityfied.eu/) .
Torrelago district involves 31 private multi-property residential buildings (1488 dwellings) that were constructed in the 1970s–1980s, more than 140,000 m2 and 4000residents involved. Former conditions of the district were very low in terms of efficiency, comfort and costs, which fostered the intervention. Main energy measures implemented at the building scale are buildings external insulation (Composite System-ETICS, ventilated façade), connection to district heating (twelve new heat exchange substations at building level), individual metering to raise users’ awareness.
DREEAM – Demonstrating an integrated Renovation approach for Energy Efficiency At the Multi-building scale
The H2020 project DREEAM focuses on the deep renovation of social houses managed by a single owner with a large portfolio of residential buildings. The investment scenario model has been developed by Bax & Company in the framework of the DREEAM project to demonstrate the value of scaled investment planning for achieving building owners’ long-term sustainability vision. Applying a “backcasting” approach, energy efficiency targets are considered the starting point for the development of investment strategies which realistically link the building owners’ financial capacity with the renovation measures to be implemented.
The current status of the building portfolio is assessed based on the crosscutting dataset built from operational, technical and financial data points at dwelling level. Building typologies (archetypes) and age are key tools for categorising the stock as well as a basis for the design of tailored renovation packages.
The integration and visualisation of datasets in an interactive manner allows decision-makers to quickly design and assess alternative investment strategies. Having applied the tool with 10 housing providers across Europe, the tool has helped to bring decision-making energy efficiency investment to board level. The tool offers:
- Increased importance and agreed investment in data collection and management
- Adjusted (often upwards) of renovation investments, due to better insight in (financial) feasibility
- Unlocking of better financial conditions (‘green’ interest discounts) and national and EU grants
Example of simplified renovation package
Example of simplified renovation package
The project STUNNING aims at building up a stakeholder community around a Renovation Hub designed as a knowledge sharing platform, providing information on innovative solutions for building renovation and novel business models (illustrated through case studies) for their adoption and large scale replication. The provided solutions involve affordable and adaptable refurbishment packages, taking into consideration the whole renovation value chain.
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